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what is Morphine 30mg?
Morphine 30mg is a pain medication of the opiate variety, It acts directly on the central nervous system to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain. It is frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during labor. It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injecting under the skin, intravenously, into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally. Morphine 30mg is beneficial in reducing the symptom of shortness of breath due to both cancer and noncancer causes. In the setting of breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion from conditions such as advanced cancer or end-stage cardiorespiratory diseases, regular, low-dose sustained-release morphine significantly reduces breathlessness safely, with its benefits maintained over time.
Morphine 30mg is the prototypical opioid and is the standard against which other opioids are tested. It interacts predominantly with the μ–δ-opioid (Mu-Delta) receptor heteromer. The μ-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Morphine is a phenanthrene opioid receptor agonist – its main effect is binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Its intrinsic activity at the μ-opioid is heavily dependent on the assay and tissue being tested; in some situations, it is a full agonist while in others it can be a partial agonist or even antagonist. In clinical settings, morphine exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Activation of the μ-opioid receptors is associated with analgesia, sedation, euphoria, physical dependence, and respiratory depression. Morphine 30mg is also a κ-opioid and δ-opioid receptor agonist, κ-opioid’s action is associated with spinal analgesia, miosis (pinpoint pupils), and psychotomimetic effects. δ-Opioid is thought to play a role in analgesia. The effects of morphine can be countered with opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone; the development of tolerance to morphine may be inhibited by NMDA antagonists such as ketamine or dextromethorphan.
Nausea, Vomiting, Constipation, Drowsiness, dry mouth, Dizziness, Decreased sex drive, Loss of appetite, impaired sexual function, Decreased testosterone levels, Depression, Immunodeficiency,opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, Irregular menstruation, Increased risk of falls, Slowed breathing, A localized reaction to intravenous morphine 30mg caused by histamine release in the veins. Cessation of dosing with morphine creates the prototypical opioid withdrawal syndrome, which, unlike that of barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, or sedative-hypnotics, is not fatal by itself in neurologically healthy patients without heart or lung problems
Acute morphine 30mg withdrawal, along with that of any other opioid, proceeds through a number of stages. Other opioids differ in the intensity and length of each, and weak opioids and mixed agonist-antagonists may have acute withdrawal syndromes that do not reach the highest level, they are:
Stage I, 6 h to 14 h after the last dose: Drug craving, anxiety, irritability, perspiration, and mild to moderate dysphoria
Stage II, 14 h to 18 h after the last dose: Yawning, heavy perspiration, mild depression, lacrimation, crying, headaches, runny nose, dysphoria, also intensification of the above symptoms, “yen sleep” (a waking trance-like state)
Stage III, 16 h to 24 h after the last dose: Rhinorrhea (runny nose) and increase in other of the above, dilated pupils, piloerection (goosebumps – a purported origin of the phrase, ‘cold turkey,’ but in fact the phrase originated outside of drug treatment), muscle twitches, hot flashes, cold flashes, aching bones and muscles, loss of appetite, and the beginning of intestinal cramping
Stage IV, 24 h to 36 h after the last dose: Increase in all of the above including severe cramping and involuntary leg movements (“kicking the habit” also called restless leg syndrome), loose stool, insomnia, the elevation of blood pressure, moderate elevation in body temperature, increase in the frequency of breathing and tidal volume, tachycardia (elevated pulse), restlessness, nausea
Stage V, 36 h to 72 h after the last dose: Increase in the above, fetal position, vomiting, free and frequent liquid diarrhea, which sometimes can accelerate the time of passage of food from the mouth to out of the system, weight loss of 2 kg to 5 kg per 24 h, increased white cell count, and other blood changes
Stage VI, after completion of above: Recovery of appetite and normal bowel function, beginning of the transition to post-acute and chronic symptoms that are mainly psychological, but may also include increased sensitivity to pain, hypertension, colitis or other gastrointestinal afflictions related to motility, and problems with weight control in either direction.
A large overdose can cause asphyxia and death by respiratory depression if the person does not receive medical attention immediately. Overdose treatment includes the administration of naloxone. The latter completely reverses morphine’s effects but may result in the immediate onset of withdrawal in opiate-addicted subjects. Multiple doses may be needed.
The minimum lethal dose is 200 mg, but in the case of hypersensitivity, 60 mg can bring sudden death. In serious drug dependency (high tolerance), 2000–3000 mg per day can be tolerated.
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